Chocolate the dark truth – is it good for you?



Was Azar the Father of Prophet Abraham?

Was Azar the Father of Prophet Abraham?

بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

And when Ibrahim said to his sire, Azar: Do you take idle for gods ? Surely I see you and your people in manifest error. (Qur’an: Surah Al Anaam, Verse 74)

And Ibrahim asking forgiveness for his sire was only owing to a promise that he made to him; but when it became clear to him that he was an enemy of Allah, he declared himself to be clear of him; most surely Ibrahim was very tenderhearted and forbearing. (Qur’an: Surah Al Tauba, Verse 114)

In the above verses, the word ‘ Ab ‘ has been used for Azar. However, ‘Ab’ has different meanings and does not necessarily mean ‘Walid’ (biological father).

The Holy Prophet (S) has said that the essence of his existence had been transmitted and ultimately conveyed to his immediate parents through a pure, a holy and sanctified progeny.

Now the word ‘ Ab ‘ in Arabic language may mean father as well as ancestor or even uncle as Ishmael (Ismail) the uncle of Jacob (Yaqoub) has been addressed as ‘ Ab ‘ in the following Qur’anic verse …

Nay! were you witnesses when death visited Yaqoub, when he said to his sons: What will you serve after me ? They said: Well will serve your God and the God of your fathers, Ibrahim and Ismail and Ishaq, one God only, and to Him do we submit. (Qur’an 2:113)

Since Ishmael was not the father of Jacob, and yet Qur’an uses the word ‘Ab’ for him as uncle, then the usage of this word for other than biological father is established…

Besides Prophet Abraham prays for his biological father (Walid) along with the other believers, which clearly indicates that his biological father was not a polytheist. This is evident from the following Qur’anic verse …

O our Lord! grant me protection and my parents (Walidayn) and the believers on the day when the reckoning shall come to pass. (Qur’an 14:41)

رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَوْمَ يَقُومُ الْحِسَابُ

But what is surprising, that knowing for fact Ibrahim’s (as) father was ‘Tarakh’ and not ‘Azar’ as stipulated by some Sunni historians, which is in total conformity with the opinion of Shi’a. Ibn Katheer in his work on history writes:

Ibrahim (as) was the son of Tarakh. When Tarakh was 75 years of age, Ibrahim (as) was born to him.

Sunni reference: al-Bidaya wan Nahaya, by Ibn Katheer, v 1 p 139

This is also confirmed by Tabari, as he gives the lineage of Ibrahim’s (as) family in his history collection, but then also in his Commentary of the Qur’an he states that ‘Azar’ was NOT the father of Ibrahim (as).

Sunni references:

– History of al-Tabari, v 1 p 119
– Tafsir Tabari, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, v 7 p 158

Nahjul Balagha – Saying number 70 – Characteristics of an IGNORANT


Nahjul Balagha – Saying number 70

وَ قَالَ عليه‏السلام: لَا تَرَى الْجَاهِلَ إِلَّا مُفْرِطاً أَوْ مُفَرِّطاً.

Amir al-mu’minin, peace be upon him, said:

You will not find an ignorant person but at one extreme or the other (i.e. a person who neglects or a person who exaggerates).

Another Translation

‘You will not see an ignorant person except that he is either committing excess in what he does or falling short of what he ought to do.’[1]

شخص نادان جز در یی از دو حالت تندروی و یا کندروی مشاھدہ نمی شود۔


جھل یا جھل بسیط است کہ ھمان طرف کندروی از فضیلت و بہ کودنی موسوم است۔ و یا جھل مرکب است کہ ھمان طرف تندروی است۔

توضیح آن کہ نادانی کہ در جھل مرکب است، گاھی در پیگیری از حق زیادہ روی می کند و در نتیجہ تلاش پردہ ای جلو چشم بصیرت او پدید می آید کہ او با قطع بر این کہ این دلیل رسیدن وی بہ حق است، از دریافت حق و حقیقت باز می ماند۔ کہ گاھی این طرف را جربزہ می نامند و ھموارہ چنین فردی در یکی از دو طرف است و بہ اندازئہ نادانی اش حالت وی در تمام رفتارھا و گفارھا بر یکی از دو سمت: تندروی یا کندروی است۔

There are two types of ignorance:

  • Ordinary (simple) ignorance
  • Compounded ignorance

All types of ignorance is a disliked and discouraged.

وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا أَنْفَقُوا لَمْ يُسْرِفُوا وَلَمْ يَقْتُرُوا وَكَانَ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ قَوَامًا

First Translation: and who, whenever they spend on others, are neither wasteful nor niggardly but [remember that] there is always a just mean between those [two extremes];

Another Translation: who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor stingy, but keep the balance between those two extremes;

ميانه روي به معناي رفتن در خط وسط كه از دو طرف به يك فاصله است و دوري از افراط و تفريط است .

در قرآن كريم از اين واژه به تعبير وسط ياد و از آن مدح گرديده است .

«و كذلك جعلناكم امه وسطاً لتكونوا شهداء علي الناس»

اين چنين شما را امت معتدل قرار داديم تا گواه بر همه مردمان باشيد

و لا تجعل يدك مغلوله الي عنقك و لا تبسطها فتقعد ملوماً محذوراً»

در مقام خرج و انفاق ، اسراف كاري ، ولخرجي و يا خساست و نظر تنگي كه مصداق افراط و تفريط است نكوهش شده ولي در ميانه مورد توجه قرار گرفته است

حضرت علی علیه‌السلام فرموده‌اند «خیر الامور اوسطها». پس اگر در تمام امور زندگی ( خوردن ، خوابیدن ، مسافرت و حتی محبت کردن و …) اعتدال را رعایت کنیم، کمتر دچار مشکل می‌شویم.


Excess(iveness), immoderation, immoderateness, extravagance, intemperance, intemperateness, exceeding the proper bounds or limits, going too far or to extremes.


Negligence, remissness, neglect; losing, loss, forfeiture; missing, throwing away; wasting, waste, squandering; waiver, abandonment, renunciation

وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطًا لِّتَكُونُوا شُهَدَاءَ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَيَكُونَ الرَّسُولُ عَلَيْكُمْ شَهِيدًا ۗ وَمَا جَعَلْنَا الْقِبْلَةَ الَّتِي كُنتَ عَلَيْهَا إِلَّا لِنَعْلَمَ مَن يَتَّبِعُ الرَّسُولَ مِمَّن يَنقَلِبُ عَلَىٰ عَقِبَيْهِ ۚ وَإِن كَانَتْ لَكَبِيرَةً إِلَّا عَلَى الَّذِينَ هَدَى اللَّهُ ۗ وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُضِيعَ إِيمَانَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِالنَّاسِ لَرَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ – 2:143

  1. Thus We have appointed you a middle nation, that ye may be witnesses against mankind, and that the messenger may be a witness against you. And We appointed the qiblah which ye formerly observed only that We might know him who followeth the messenger, from him who turneth on his heels. In truth it was a hard (test) save for those whom Allah guided. But it was not Allah’s purpose that your faith should be in vain, for Allah is Full of Pity, Merciful toward mankind.
  2. And thus we have made you a just community that you will be witnesses over the people and the Messenger will be a witness over you. And We did not make the qiblah which you used to face except that We might make evident who would follow the Messenger from who would turn back on his heels. And indeed, it is difficult except for those whom Allah has guided. And never would Allah have caused you to lose your faith. Indeed Allah is, to the people, Kind and Merciful.

Characteristics of an ignorant

Appearances are generally very deceptive, and it becomes very difficult to distinguish between the aware and the ignorant. One always enjoys the company of an aware person, on the other hand if you happen to interact with an ignorant, it is like breaking your head on a wall. How to distinguish between an aware and an ignorant. The following list is not exhaustive but just representative.

  1. An ignorant person is very egoistic
  2. An ignorant person will always claim that he is correct & the best
  3. An ignorant person will try to show off his limited knowledge
  4. An ignorant person is like a frog in the well
  5. An ignorant person is busy without work
  6. An ignorant person wants his word to be the final word

7.An ignorant person suffers from ethnocentric bias and superiority complex

  1. An ignorant person will always indulge in self praise
  2. An ignorant person will always find out mistakes with others
  3. An ignorant person is extremely rigid and never satisfied

Seven Signs of Ignorance

Once in a while we come across certain type of people who portray themselves as highly knowledgeable about a particular subject but in reality are very ignorant. Usually such people are motivated through their ego and arrogance over their opponents. Sometimes they even think themselves to be some sort of authority over a subject, which they either no nothing about or know very little about.

I want to focus particularly on certain practicing Muslims who after learning a few things about their religion consider themselves as qualified for debates with those who differ with them. However, the reality is that their understanding of the religion is very limited to that of a beginner and are actually ignorant on the topic. Fortunately, there are some signs of ignorance that if a person shows during a debate or conversation can confirm that in reality this person is ignorant in his understanding of the subject:

  1. Contradiction – The person will contradict himself during the debate. He will say one thing at one point and say the opposite in another point of the same conversation or debate. For example, a person will say “It is haram to protest because it is an imitation of the kuffar!” but after the opposer mentions some benefits of it, he will say “Well it is permissible for men only not women.” A complete contradiction and a clear sign of ignorance.
  2. Personal Attacks – If a person starts going off topic and starts throwing personal attacks at you, then this is a clear sign of ignorance. This usually happens if that person cannot hold a strong argument or cannot refute an argument. Feeling helpless and defeated, he will usually throw personal attacks at you. During a religious debate, he’ll most likely point out the deficiencies in the opposer’s religious duties or personal beliefs.
  3. Make Random Statements – If a person starts to spit out random statements not related to the subject of the debate, then this is also a sign of ignorance. Usually in this case, the person is trying to flee from the topic as he is not knowledgeable enough to defend his position. So in order to keep his dignity and humbly admit “I don’t know” he will run into a different topic as a safe haven. This second topic will most likely be something else that the person differs with from his opponent. Usually the person tries to run into a topic he feels that he has strong arguments or proofs against his opponent. Again this is just an attempt by the ignorant person to regain his ego after a defeat on a topic he had no knowledge about.
  4. Change Opinions Often – If a person changes his opinions often without much thought, then most likely he is ignorant. In this case a person will hold one opinion today but in a few hours might change it completely to something else. This is a sign of ignorance and is usually associated with someone who is a “new candidate” to the game or someone who is not well grounded in his stances which goes to show that he isn’t someone who should be debating on things he himself is not sure about in the first place.
  5. Does Not Know Proofs – If a person cannot back his stances with proofs or his refutations of your views with proofs, then this is a sign of ignorance. Such a person will usually not be able to give you proof if you ask him for it. He will either ignore it or reinterpret some vague statement from the Quran and Sunnah to support his view. Notice I said reinterpret which means that the vast majority of scholars or the earlier scholars didn’t see it that way especially the companions. A person of this category will also use fabricated or weak reports to defend his arguments and refute yours which in reality are not proof.
  6. Dragging On Without Point – If a person drags on an argument without a point and does not let you speak or if so, then very rarely, then this is a sign of ignorance. Usually this person will quite often cut you off in mid-sentence and will not give you the right to make your point. And they will usually drag on an argument/debate unnecessarily without making any clear points. Basically, a person with knowledge can usually make his point in a few sentences very clearly but an ignorant has to drag on and on trying to make you THINK they’re making a point when in reality they are not! Usually such a person’s opponent starts to think to himself “What is he talking about? His conversation isn’t making any sense?!” A clear sign of ignorance.
  7. Lie – Believe it or not an ignorant person is not afraid to pull this move. If a person will lie flat to your face just to win the argument or make himself look superior to you so he can feed his ego, then this person is clearly ignorant. A good example in my personal life is when I asked a brother if he knew the Arabic language fluently and he answered with an immediate and confident “Yes!” Lo and behold after a few weeks he couldn’t use an Arabic word in a sentence! Not only that but he told me then that he was the same level in Arabic as I was and not fluent! So why did he lie before? Most likely just to make me feel inferior to him and have some sort of awe for him.

The above are not the only signs but a few which I personally have observed in ignorant people and/or have heard from people of knowledge on this subject. So if during a conversation or debate (provided your qualified), you find one of the above characteristics in a person, then do not waste your time because the person has no idea what he is talking about.[2]

Some other characteristics

  1. He will either leave the hereafter for the world or the world for the hereafter, both are not right.
  2. He will either earn too much or lose himself completely in the way of money and wealth and others would not want to work at all and would be a burden on others.
  3. Some will give everything to others, and some would not want to give anything to anyone, not even to their own relatives and friends.

Feedback and Questions

[1] Nahjul Balagha – Saying number 70


Love and Hate and their Exaggeration regarding Imam Ali (a)

Amir al-mu’minin, peace be upon him, said:

Two categories of persons will face ruin because me: he who loves me with exaggeration, and he who hates me intensely.

وَ قَالَ عليه السلام: هَلَكَ فِيَّ رَجُلَانِ مُحِبٌّ غَالٍ وَ مُبْغِضٌ قَالٍ

Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (a) said:

Two types of persons will fall into ruin on my account: One who loves me and exaggerates, and the other who lays on me false and baseless blames.

Sayyid ar-Radi says, “This is on the lines of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib’s (a) own saying which runs thus: ‘Two categories of persons will be ruined on my account: One who loves me with exaggeration, and one who hates [me] and is a bearer of malice’.”

The Holy Prophet (a) used often to urge and order the ummah to love Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (a), forbidding them from bearing any hatred against him. Moreover, the Holy Prophet (a) used to regard the love for Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (a) as the sign of Faith (iman) and hating him as the sign of hypocrisy (nifaq).

We would like to quote one of the traditions of the Holy Prophet (a) about this subject.

It has been narrated through fourteen companions that the Holy Prophet (a) said,

“Whoever loves Ali, he surely loves me, and whoever loves me, he surely loves Allah, and whoever loves Allah, He will permit him to enter Paradise. Whoever hates Ali, he surely hates me, and whoever hates me, he surely hates Allah, and whoever hates Allah, He will surely let him enter the Fire. And whoever harms Ali, he surely harms me, and whoever harms me, he surely harms Allah, (Surely, those who harm [the Cause of] Allah and His Messenger, Allah has cursed them in the present life and in the one to come and has prepared for them a humiliating chastisement [Quran, 33: 57]) (Al-Mustadrak, Vol. 3, pp. 127-128, 130, Hilyat al-Awliya, Vol. 1, pp. 66-67, Al-Isti`ab, Vol. 3, p. 1101, Usd al-Ghabah, Vol. 4, p. 383, AlIsabah, Vol. 3, pp. 496-497, Majma‘ az-Zawa’id, Vol. 9, pp. 108-109 ,129, 131, 132, 133, Kanz al-Ummal, Vol. 12, pp. 202, 218-19, Vol. 15, pp. 95-96, Vol. 17, p. 70, Ar-Riyad an-Nadirah, Vol. 2, pp. 166, 167, 209, 214, Al-Manaqib, Ibn al-Maghazili, pp. 103, 196, 382).


At the same time, the Holy Prophet used to caution the ummah against exaggerating regarding the love for Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (a) that exceeds the bounds of Islam. One who does so is called Ghali (extremist), In other words, such a person is anyone who believes that the Holy Prophet (a) or Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (a) or any of Shi‘ite Imam is a god, or attributes to them the special attributes of Allah, or believes that the twelve Imams are prophets, or makes any claim which they (the Holy Prophet and the Imams) did not make about themselves.

Conversely, the Holy Prophet has also forbidden any offence or defamation concerning them (the Imams). He used to fault those who lay false and baseless accusations against them as well as those who hated and harboured malice against them.

Prophet’s caution

It was for this reason that the Holy Prophet (a) sometimes used to refrain from mentioning some of the excellent qualities of Imam Ali (a) ibn Abi Talib (a) as Jabir ibn ‘Abdullah al-Ansari narrates:

When Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (a) approached the Holy Prophet with the news of the conquest over Khaybar by himself (by Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib [a]), the Holy Prophet (a) said to him:

‘O Ali! Had it not been for some groups of my ummah who may say about you what the Christians say about `Isa son of Maryam, I would have said (something) about you so that you will not pass before any Muslim but that he will seize the dust from the tracks of your feet to seek a blessing from it. But it suffices to say that you hold the same status in relation to me as Harun held in relation to Musa except that there shall, in all certainty, be no prophet after me’”

The Holy Prophet (a) had also informed the Muslim ummah that there will appear two types of deviated groups among the Muslims who will exceed the bounds of Islamic principles regarding understanding Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (a) as he himself has related:

“The Messenger of Allah (a) called upon me and said: ‘O Ali! There is a resemblance between you and `Isa son of Maryam whom the Jews hated so much that they laid a false accusation against his mother, and whom the Christians loved so much that they assigned to him the status which is not his’”.

(Then, Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (a) continues to say:) Beware! Two types of persons will fall into ruin on my account: One who loves (me) and praise me for what is not in me, and one who hates me and whose detesting me will lead him to any false and baseless accusation on me. Beware! I am not a prophet, and nothing has been revealed to me. But I act according to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Prophet as much as I can. (Al-Musnad, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Vol. 1, p. 160, AlMustadrak, al-Hakim, Vol. 3, p. 123, Mishkat al-Masabih, Vol. 3, pp. 245-246, Majma’ az-Zawa’id, Vol. 9, p. 133, Kanz al-`Ummal, Vol. 12, p. 219, Vol. 15, p. 110, Ibn Kathir, Vol. 7, p. 356).

The above-mentioned sayings of Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (a) as well have been reported from the Holy Prophet (a) when he said to Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (a): “O Ali! Two types of people will fall into ruin on your account: One who loves you with exaggeration, and the liar who lays false accusation on you” (Al-Isti`ab, vol.3, p. 1101).

Also, he said to him, “Two categories will be ruined on your account: One who loves with exaggeration, and one who hates you and who bears malice [against you]” (Ibn Abil-Hadid, Vol. 5, p. 6).

The famous scholar of tradition, Amir ibn Sharahil ash-Sha‘bi (19/640-103/721), has confirmed this saying that these two categories appeared and both became disbelievers and were ruined (Al-Isti`ab, Vol. 3, p. 1130, Al-‘Iqd al-Farid, Vol. 4, p. 312).

Belief and Action

“The injury we do and the one we suffer are not weighed in the same scales”: Aesop, Fables

“He does not believe who does not live according to his belief”: Thomas Fuller

“In the last analysis we must be judged by what we do and not by what we believe. We are as we behave ” – Geoffrey L. Rudd, The British Vegetarian, September/October 1962

“Live truth instead of professing it”: Elbert Hubbard

“The only real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new landscapes but in having new eyes.” – Marcel Proust, novelist (1871-1922)

Sermon 11 (Nahjul Balagha) Urdu and English (with short explanation)


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Sermon 11


Delivered in the Battle of Jamal when Amir al-mu’minin gave the standard to his son Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyah.

ومن كلام له (عليه السلام)

لابنه محمّد بن الحنفية لمّا أعطاه الراية يوم الجمل

تَزُولُ الجِبَالُ وَلاَ تَزُلْ! عَضَّ عَلَى نَاجِذِكَ، أَعِرِ اللهَ جُمجُمَتَكَ، تِدْ في الاْرْضِ قَدَمَكَ، ارْمِ بِبَصَرِكَ أَقْصَى القَوْمِ، وَغُضَّ بَصَرَكَ، وَاعْلَمْ أَنَّ النَّصْرَ مِنْ عِنْدِ اللهِ سُبْحَانَهُ.

Mountains2 may move from their position, but you should not move from yours. Grit your teeth. Lend to Allah your head (in fighting for Allah, give yourself to Allah). Plant your feet firmly on the ground. Have your eye on the remotest foe and close your eyes (to their numerical majority). And keep sure that succour (madad) is but from Allah, the Glorified.[1]

اپنے فرزند محمد بن الحنفیہ سے (میدان جمل میں علم لشکر دیتے ہوئے)

خبردار پہاڑ اپنی جگہ سے ہٹ جائے، تم نہ ہٹنا۔ اپنے دانتوں کو بھینچ لینا۔ اپنا کاسئہ سر اللہ کے حوالے کر دینا۔ زمین میں قدم گاڑ دینا۔ نگاہ آخرِ قوم پر رکھنا۔ آنکھوں کو بند رکھنا اور یہ یاد رکھنا کہ مدد اللہ ہی کی طرف سے آنے والی ہے۔

تشریح و توضیح

حیرت کی بات ہے کہ جو انسان ایسے فنون، جنگ کی تعلیم دیتا ہو اسے موت سے خوفزدہ ہونے کا الزام دیدیا جائے۔ امیر المومنین ؑ کی مکمل تاریخ حیات گواہ ہے کہ آپ سے بڑا شجاع و بہادر کائنات میں نہیں پیدا ہوا ہے۔ آپ موت کو سر چشمہ حیات تصور کرتے تھے جس کی طرف بچہ فطری طور پر ہمکتا ہے اور اسے اپنی زندگی کا راز تصور کرتا ہے۔ آپ نے صفین کے میدان میں وہ تیغ کے جوہر دکھلائے ہیں جس نے ایک مرتبہ پھر بدر و احد و خندہ و خیبر کی یاد تازہ کر دی تھی اور یہ ثابت کر دیا تھا کہ یہ بازو 25 سال کے سکوت کے بعد بھی شل نہیں ہوئے ہیں اور یہ فن حرب کسی مشق و مہارت کا نتیجہ نہیں ہے۔

محمد حنفیہ سے خطاب کرکے یہ فرمانا کہ

“پہاڑ ہٹ جائیں تم نہ ہٹنا” اس امر کی دلیل ہے کہ آپ کی استقامت اس سے کہیں زیادہ پائیدار اور استوار ہے۔

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الَّذِينَ يُقَاتِلُونَ فِي سَبِيلِهِ صَفًّا كَأَنَّهُم بُنْيَانٌ مَّرْصُوصٌ – [2]61:4

Indeed, Allah loves those who fight in His cause in a row as though they are a [single] structure joined firmly.

دانتون کو بھینچ لینے میں اشارہ ہے کہ اس طرح رگوں کے تنائو پر تلوار کا وار اثر نہیں کرتا ہے۔

کاسئہ سر کو عاریت دیدینے کا مطلب یہ ہے کہ مالک زندہ رکھنا چاہئے گا تو دوبارہ یہ سر واپس لیا جا سکتا ہے ورنہ بندہ نے تو اس کی بارگاہ میں پیش کر دیا ہے۔

آنکھوں کو بند رکھنے اور آخرِ قوم پر نگاہ رکھنے کا مطلب یہ ہے کہ سامنے کے لشکر کو مت دیکھنا۔ بس یہ دیکھنا کہ کہاں تک جان ہے اور اس کس طرح صفوں کو پامال کر دیتا ہے۔

آخری فقرہ جنگ اور جہاد کے فرق کو نمایاں کرتا ہے کہ جنگ ج اپنی طاقت پر بھروسہ کرتا ہے اور مجاہد نصرت الٰہی کے اعتماد پر میدان میں قدم جماتا ہے اور جس کی خدا مدد کر دے وہ کبھی مغلوب نہیں ہو سکتا ہے۔

Who is Muhammad bin Hanafiyyah?

Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah was Amir al-mu’minin’s son but called Ibn Hanafiyyah after his mother. His mother’s name was Khawlah bint Ja`far. She was known as Hanafiyyah after her tribe Banu Hanifah.

When people of Yamamah were declared apostates for believing in Musailamah (al-Kazzab, who declared prophethood after the demise of the prophet and many people believed in him) and refusing to pay zakat (religious tax) and were defeated and their women-folk were brought to Medina as captives during the time of Abu Bakr, this lady also came to Medina with them. When her tribesmen came to know it, they approached Amir al-mu’minin and requested him to save her from the blemish of slavery and protect her family honour and prestige. Consequently, Amir al-mu’minin set her free after purchasing and married here whereafter Muhammad was born.

Confusion about his surname ‘Abul Qasim’

Although Ibn Khallikan (in Wafayat al-ayan, vol. 4, p.170) has taken that son of Amir al-mu'minin for whom the Prophet had specified this surname to be Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, yet al-Allamah al-Mamaqani (in Tanqih al-maqal, vol. 3, Part 1, p. 112) writes:

In applying this tradition to Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, Ibn Khallikan has got into confusion, because the son of Amir al- mu’minin whom the Prophet’s name and surname together have been gifted by the Prophet, and which is not permissible to be given to anyone else, is to the awaited last Imam (may our lives be his ransom), and not to Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, nor is the surname Abu’l- Qasim established for him, rather some of the Sunnis being ignorant of the real intention of the Prophet, have taken to mean Ibn al-Hanafiyyah.

How was Muhammad ibn Hanafiyyah?

However, Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah was distinguished in righteousness and piety, lofty in renunciation (Zohd) and worship, elevated in knowledge and achievements and heir of his father in bravery.

His performance in the battles of Jamal and Siffin had created such impression among the Arabs that even warriors of consequence trembled at his name. Amir al-mu’minin too was proud of his courage and valour, and always placed him forward in encounters.

Shaykh al-Baha’i has written in al-Kashkul that `Ali ibn Abi Talib kept him abreast in the battles and did not allow Hasan and Husayn to go ahead, and used to say, “He is my son while these two are sons of the Prophet of Allah.”

When a Kharijite said to Ibn al-Hanafiyyah that Ali thrust him into the flames of war but saved away Hasan and Husayn he replied that he himself was like the right hand and Hasan and Husayn likeAli’s two eyes and that `Ali protected his eyes with his right hand.

But al-`Allamah al-Mamaqani has written in Tanqih al-Maqal that this was not the reply of Ibn al-Hanafiyyah but of Amir al-mu’minin himself. When during the battle of Siffin Muhammad mentioned this matter to Amir al-mu’minin in a complaining tone he replied, “You are my right hand whereas they are my eyes, and the hand should protect the eyes.”

Apparently, it seems that first Amir al-mu’minin must have given this reply and thereafter someone might have mentioned it to Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah and he must have repeated the same reply as there could be no more eloquent reply than this one and its eloquence confirms the view that it was originally the outcome of the eloquent tongue of Amir al-mu’minin and was later appropriated by Muhammad al-Hanafiyyah.

Therefore, both these views can be held to be correct and there is no inappropriateness between them.

However, he was born in the reign of the second Caliph and died in the reign of `Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan at the age of sixty-five years. Some writers have recorded the year of his death as 80 A.H. and others as 81 A.H. There is a difference about the place of his death as well. Some have put it as Medina, some Aylah and some Ta’if.

Explanation and meaning of the Sermon

  1. When in the Battle of Jamal Amir al-mu’minin sent Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah to the battle-field, he told him that he should fix himself before the enemy like the mountain of determination and firmness so that the attack of the army should not be able to move him, and should charge the enemy with closed teeth because by pressing teeth over the teeth tension occurs in the nerves of the skull as a result of which the stroke of the sword goes amiss (away from the correct or expected course), as he said at another place also viz. “Press together the teeth. It sends amiss the edge of the sword.”

Then he says, “My child, lend your head to Allah in order that you may be able to achieve eternal life in place of this one, because for a lent article there is the right to get it back.

Therefore, you should fight being heedless of your life, otherwise also if your mind clings to life you will hesitate to advance towards deathly encounters and that would tell upon your reputation of bravery.

Look, do not let your steps weaken because the enemy is emboldened at the faltering of steps, and faltering steps fastens the feet of the enemy.

Keep the last lines of the opponent as your aim so that the enemy may be overawed (scared and subdued) with loftiness of your intentions and you may feel ease in tearing through their rows, and their movement should also not remain concealed from you.

Look, do not pay heed to their superiority in numbers, otherwise your valour and courage would suffer.” T

his sentence can also mean that one should not wide open the eyes to be dazzled by the shining of weapons, and the enemy may make an attack by taking advantage of the situation.

Also, always bear it in mind that victory is from Allah. “If Allah helps you no one can overpower you.” Therefore, instead of relying on material means seek His support and succour.

إِن يَنصُرْكُمُ اللَّهُ فَلَا غَالِبَ لَكُمْ ۖ وَإِن يَخْذُلْكُمْ فَمَن ذَا الَّذِي يَنصُرُكُم مِّن بَعْدِهِ ۗ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ – 3:160[3]

If Allah should aid you, no one can overcome you; but if He should forsake you, who is there that can aid you after Him? And upon Allah let the believers rely.

[1] Alternative Sources for Sermon 11

(1) Al-Mamatiri, Nuzhat al-‘absar, see ‘Abd al-Zahra’, I, 340;

(2) al-Zamakhshari, Rabi’, IV, bab al-qatl wa al-shahadah.

[2] Surah as-Saf Ayah 4

[3] Surah Aale Imran Ayah 159

Letter 58 Of Nahjul Balagha – “Why battle of Siffin happened”

“The thing began in this way: We and the Syrians were facing each other while we had common faith in one Allah, in the same Prophet (s) and on the same principles and canons of religion. So far as faith in Allah and the Holy Prophet (s) was concerned we never wanted them (the Syrians) to believe in anything over and above or other than what they were believing in and they did not want us to change our faith. Both of us were united on these principles. The point of contention between us was the question of the murder of Uthman. It had created the split. They wanted to lay the murder at my door while I am actually innocent of it.

I advised them that this problem cannot be solved by excitement. Let the excitement subside, let us cool down; let us do away with sedition and revolt; let the country settle down into a peaceful atmosphere and when once a stable regime is formed and the right authority is accepted, then let this question be dealt with on the principles of equity and justice because only then the authority will have power enough to find the criminals and to bring them to justice. They refused to accept my advice and said that they wanted to decide the issue on the point of the sword.

When they thus rejected my proposal of peace and kept on sabre rattling threats, then naturally the battle, which was furious and bloody, started. When they saw defeat facing them across the battlefield, when many of them were killed, and many more wounded, then they went down on their knees and proposed the same thing, which I had proposed before the bloodshed had begun.

I accepted their proposal so that their desire might be fulfilled, my intentions of accepting the principles of truth and justice and acting according to these principles might become clear and they might have no cause to complain against me.

Now whoever adheres firmly to the promises made will be the one whose salvation will be saved by Allah and one who will try to go back upon the promises made, will fall deeper and deeper into heresy, error and loss. His eyes will be closed to realities and truth in this world and he will be punished in the next world.”

Maulana Kalbe Jawad Naqvi

syedzaidi's blog

10 Points Regarding Maulana Syed Kalbe Jawad Sahab #ReadAndDecide

Dear Momineen,

Background: Once again we see increased activity on Social Media targeting a certain shia aalim called Maulana Syed Kalbe Jawad sahab.

This is a good opportunity to get acquainted with him and to evaluate our responsibility with respect to him and his role.

To help us do so here are 10 points…

1. The most influential Shia Alim in India

He is the Imame Juma of the most important shia centre in India, i.e. Lucknow. It is worth keeping in mind that the majority of shias in India live in or belong to the state of U.P.

He is also a member of the All-India Muslim Personal Law Board. In the first 10 days of Muharram, he recites majalis from what has traditionally been considered the most influential minbar in all of North India, if not in all…

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🔵 گانا بجانا 🔵

🔵 گانا بجانا 🔵

■گانا کیا ہے؟
سیَّد مرتضیٰ اپنی کتاب “وسیلہ” میں فرماتے ہیں:
گانا حرام ہے۔ گانا سُننا بھی حرام ہے اور اس کے ذریعے مال کمانا بھی حرام ہے۔ البتہ ہر اچھی آواز گانا نہیں ہے بلکہ گانا ایک خاص انداز میں آواز کو کھینچنے اور حلق میں مخصوص انداز سے گھمانے کو کہتے ہیں، جو کہ لہو ولعب اور عیش وطرب کی محفلوں میں رائج ہے۔ ایسا گانا موسیقی کے آلات سے عام طور پر ہم آہنگ ہوتا ہے.”
الغرض عرفِ عام میں جِسے گانا کہا جاتا ہو وہ حرام ہے۔ پس اگر اشعار، قرآن یا نوحے مرثیے بھی گانے کی طرز پر پڑھے جائیں تو یہ بھی گناہ ہے، بلکہ عام گانے سے زیادہ بڑا گناہ ہے۔ کیونکہ اس طرح قرآنِ مجید اور نوحے مرثیے کی بے حرمتی ہوتی ہے۔ یہی وجہ ہے کہ اس کا گناہ اور عذاب دُگنا ہے۔”

■گانا، گناہِ کبیرہ
جب حضرت امام محمد باقر علیہ السَّلام نے فرمایا تھا کہ
“گانا ایسی چیزوں میں سے ہے جس پر خداوندِ تعالیٰ نے عذاب کا قول دیا ہے.”
تو یہ آیت شریفہ بھی تلاوت فرمائی تھی:
“اور لوگوں میں بعض ایسے بھی ہیں جو بیہودہ چیزیں (لَہْوَالْحَدِیْثِ) خریدتے ہیں تاکہ بغیر سوچے سمجھے وہ لوگوں کو خدا کی راہ سے بھٹکا دیں اور خدا کی نشانیوں کا مذاق اُڑائیں۔ ایسے ہی لوگوں کے لئے بڑا رسوا کر دینے والا عذاب ہے!”
آیت میں “لَہْوَالْحَدِیْثِ” کا لفظ آیا ہے جس سے مراد گانا ہے.
اس آیت شریفہ اور امام محمد باقر علیہ السَّلام کی حدیث سے معلوم ہوتا ہے کہ گانا بھی لَہْوَالْحَدِیْث یعنی بیہودہ چیزوں میں سے ایک ہے۔ بیہودہ چیز کوئی نامناسب بات، حرکت یا شاعری وغیرہ ہوسکتی ہے جس میں کوئی فائدہ نہ ہو اور جو انسان کو فائدے سے محروم کر دے دوسرے الفاظ میں کلامِ حق اور قرآنِ مجید کی بات ماننے سے روک دینے والی ہر چیز لَھْوَالْحَدِیْث ہے. گمراہ کردینے والی ہر چیز اور فسق وفجور، عیّاشی اور فحاشی کی طرف مائل کرنے والی ہر چیز لَھْوَالْحَدِیْث ہے خواہ وہ گانا سُننا ہو یا خود گانا ہو.

■آپس میں نفاق اور گانا
امام جعفر صادق علیہ السلام نے فرمایا:
“گانے باجے کو اور بے ہودہ باتوں کو غور سے سُننا دل میں نفاق کو اسی طرح پیدا کردیتا ہے جس طرح پانی سبزے کی نشوونما کا باعث بنتاہے۔”
(کتاب کافی)

■گانے کا پروگرام
حضرت امام جعفر صادق علیہ السَّلام نے فرمایا:
لاَ تَدْخُلُوْا بُیوُتاً، اَللّٰہُ مُعْرِضُ عَنْ اَھْلِھَا.
(کتاب کافی)
“ایسے گھروں میں داخل بھی مت ہو جس کے رہنے والوں پر سے خدا نے اپنی نظرِرحمت ہٹالی ہو!”
یہی امام علیہ السّلام فرماتے ہیں
“بَیْتُ الْغِنَآءِ لاَ یُوٴْمَنُ فِیْہِ الْفَجِیٴَة،
وَلاَ یُجَابُ فِیْہِ الدَّعْوَةُ،
وَلاَ یَدْخُلُہُ الْمَلَک.”
“جس گھر میں گانا باجا ہوتا ہے وہ ناگہانی مصیبتوں سے محفوظ نہیں رہتا، ایسے مقام پر دُعا مستجاب نہیں ہوتی، اور ایسی جگہ فرشتے نہیں آتے.
(کتابِ کافی اور مستدرک الوسائل. باب ۷۸)

■گانا اور فقر و فاقہ
حضرت علی علیہ السَّلام سے مروی ہے وَالْغِنَآءُ یُوْرِثُ النِّفَاقَ وَ یُعَقِّبُ الْفَقْرَ.
“اور گانا باجا نفاق پیدا کرتا ہے اور فقر و فاقہ کا باعث بنتا ہے!”
(مستدرک الوسائل‘ باب ۷۸)

■گانے کا عذاب
حضر ت رسولِ خدا صلی اللہ علیہ و آلہ وسلم سے مروی ہے کہ
“یُحْشَرُ صَاحِبُ الْغِنآءِ مَنْ قَبَرِ ہ اَعْمٰی وَآخْرَسَ وَاَبْکَمَ.” (جامعُ الاخبار)
گانا گانے والا شخص اپنی قبر سے جب میدانِ حشر میں نکلے گا تو اندھا بھی ہوگا، بہرا بھی ہوگا اور گونگا بھی ہو گا.

■رحمتِ خداسے محرومی
قطب راوندی نے پیغمبرِ اکرم (صلی اللہ علیہ و آلہ) کی یہ روایت نقل کی ہے کہ
“گانا گانے والا شخص ایسے لوگوں میں شامل ہے جن پر قیامت کے دن خدا نظرِ رحمت نہیں ڈالے گا!”

■لڑکی کی شادی میں گانا بجانا
بعض مجتہدین نے تین شرطوں کے ساتھ شادی کے موقع پر عورتوں کو گانے کی اجازت دی ہے:
(۱) پہلی شرط یہ ہے کہ گانا سُننے والوں میں کوئی مرد موجود نہ ہو، یہاں تک کہ محرم مرد بھی موجودنہ ہوں۔
(۲) دوسری شرط یہ ہے کہ گانے فحش نہ ہوں اور جھوٹی باتوں پر مشتمل نہ ہوں۔
(۳) تیسری شرط یہ ہے کہ گانے کے ساتھ ڈھول تاشہ اور دیگر بجانے کے آلات استعمال نہ ہوں۔
بعض علماء نے دف (یعنی ایسا ڈھول جس کے ایک ہی طرف کھال ہو) شادی میں بجانے کی اجازت دی ہے۔ شہیدِ ثانی اورمحققِ ثانی فرماتے ہیں کہ دف شادی میں اس صورت میں بجاناجائز ہے جب کہ اس کے اطراف میں جھنجھنے نہ لگے ہوں۔
لیکن احتیاط یہ ہے کہ شادی کے موقع پر نہ تو عورتیں گانا گائیں اور نہ ہی کوئی چیز بجائیں۔ شیخ انصاری علیہ الرَّحمہ “مکاسب” میں شہید ِثانی کتاب”دروس” میں اورسیَّد مرتضیٰ کتاب “وسیلہ” میں اس موضوع پر یہی فرماتے ہیں: اَلْاِحْتِیَاطُ طَرِیْقُ النَّجاَةِ یعنی احتیاط ہی نجات کا راستہ ہے.

العرق دساس وكما تدين تدان

العرق دساس وكما تدين تدان

قصة حقيقيه فيها عبرة
في قديم الزمان رجل تزوج
وفي اول يوم الزواج،،،
اجتمع حول الطعام هو وأمه وزوجته
فقدم سهم الطعام الكبير والإهتمام
لكونها هي عروس في أول يومها
وقدم لأمه شيء بسيط من الطعام وبلا اهتمام ….

لاحظت الزوجة وكانت حكيمة أصيلة،،
قالت له طلقني الان..
توسل لها ان تتراجع عن قرارها
وقال لها ماسبب طلبك للطلاق
قالت :-
ان العرق دساس ولا اريد انجب
منك ولد وأُهان منه كهذه الاهانة .

للاسف بعض النساء عندما
يفضلها زوجها على امه تعتقد
انها انتصرت وستكون مرتاحة
البال ونسيت أنه كما تدين تدان ..

تطلقت منه ورزقها الله زوجًا بارًا بأمه
ومرت السنين وانجبت اولاد .

وفي يوم كانت راحلة على ناقه
وعليها هودج وكانوا أولادها
يعتنون بالهودج حتى لا تمل…
وفي الطريق شاهدت قافلة
تمشي ويتبعها رجل كبير
في السن حافي القدمين خلف
القافلة يمشي لا أحد يعتني به .

فقالت لاولادها ائتوني بهذا
الرجل فاذا هو زوجها السابق
قالت له عرفتني .
قال لا قالت انا زوجتك السابقة
الم اقل لك العرق دساس … وكما تدين تدان ….
انظر الى اولادي كم هم بارين ويعتنون بي
وانظر الى حالك….أين أولادك؟
لانك اهنت امك كان هذا جزائك.

قالت لأولادها
اعتنوا به قربة الى الله تعالى ….

لكل زوجة تذكري
كما تدين تدان
وكذلك انت. الزوج ينطبق عليك الكلام
رفقا رفقا باامهاتكم وابااااكم لا تقصرو عليهم ولاتضيقو عليهم إيتها الزوجة اتركي زوجك يبر بأمه وكوني عون له
وانت أيها الزوج اترك زوجتك تبر أمها وكن عونا لها على بر والديها
فالحياة قصيرة ويوم من الأيام سوف تدفع ثمن ماعملته
ارسلها لجميع المضافين عندك لعل الذكرى تنفع المؤمنين

Your Limits – An Inspirational Poem


, ,

Your life is as lonely as you would like to make it,

Your joy is as much as you decide to feel it,

Your night is as long as you decide to stay awake,

Your destination is as far as you decide to walk,

No one sets the limits for you,

No one can catch the span of your sky,

Your sky is as much as you want to reach,

All you need is a positive approach in your decisions,

Spread your wings and decide to fly,

Life is wonderful if you know how to live it,

Allamah Iqbal – Khirad (Aql, intellect, wit)


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خرد نے کہہ  بھی دیا ‘لا الٰہ ‘ تو کیا حاصل

دل و نگاہ مسلماں نہیں تو کچھ بھی نہیں

Khirad Ne Keh Bhi Diya ‘La Ilaha’ To Kya Hasil

Dil-o-Nigah Musalman Nahin To Kuch Bhi Nahin


If wit incites a man to say ʺNo God but Heʺ it brings no gain:

It. has no worth at all I think, unless affirmed by heart and brain.